## frequency modulation and demodulation theory pdf

However, a simpler demodulator for AM signals is the envelope detector. Frequency Modulation 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 . Updated 19 May 2006. translation missing: en-US.gallery.no_license. Second, an FM demodulator based on a Phase Locked Loop (PLL) will be designed and . Plot the graphs: Modulation index vs Amplitude & Frequency 8. . The phase of the carrier wave is also kept constant. THEORY: 1. Frequency Modulation: The frequency modulation technique is used in computing, radio broadcasting, single processing, telecommunications. We are all at least vaguely familiar with frequency modulationit's the origin of the term "FM radio." If we think of frequency as something that has an instantaneous value, rather than as something that consists of several cycles divided by a . . 1.6 Spectrum of Frequency Modulated Signal Since frequency modulation is a nonlinear process, an exact description of the spectrum of an frequency-modulated signal for an arbitrary message signal is more complicated than linear process. This work specifically tackles the application of these systems as FM demodulators with lowered thresholds. Modulation is the process of transforming a baseband message to a form suitable for Fig.1 Power spectra for signals in the modulation and demodulation processes.

Again, the modulation frequency of angle modulated signal does not change, but the carrier frequency and the phase/frequency deviation is multiplied by N o(s) = NH(s)i(s) INTRODUCTION In chapters 1 and 2 you studied how to apply intelligence (modulation) to an rf-carrier wave . S(t) = A 0 cos((t . Power supply 20MHz Oscilloscope. Types of modulation Modulation is of three types they are: 1)Amplitude 2)Frequency 3)Phase Frequency modulation In telecommunications and signal processing, frequency modulation (FM) is the encoding of information in a carrier wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave.

Frequency Modulation (FM) Contents Slide 1 Frequency Modulation (FM) Slide 2 FM Signal Denition (cont.) Since the frequency change of a sinusoid in time results in alternation of phase in time, FM may also be referred to as phase modulation, or PM, as well. The superimposition of the two waves does not work in FM. An alternative approach is to not map a zero data bit to a carrier signal which is turned off, but rather to a carrier signal with a negative amplitude, which . This article pro vides a general tutorial on FSK in its many forms. THEORY: In frequency modulation, the amplitude of the carrier wave is kept constant but its frequency is varied in accordance with the amplitude of the audio frequency signal. f. c. and an amplitude . Draw the demodulated wave . This modulation method is, therefore, referred to as FM or frequency modulation.

4. Search: Analog Frequency Modulation Circuit. 9/18/2016 9Nurul/DEE 3413/Modulation Types of Modulation Pulse Modulation Carrier is a train of pulses Example: Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), Pulse width modulation (PWM) , Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) Digital Modulation Modulating signal is analog Example: Pulse Code Modulation (PCM), Delta Modulation (DM), Adaptive Delta Modulation (ADM), Differential Pulse To demodulate this waveform, it is a simple matter of passing the signal through two filters Armstrong wanted to generate WBFM using NBFM and frequency The sampling rate, or number of samples per second, is several times the maximum frequency of the analog waveform in cycles per second or hertz o modulation scheme and bandwidth, e txt) or view . FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING (FSK) MODULATION, DEMODULATION, AND PERFORMANCE . Overview; Functions; Reviews (22) Discussions (14) The Files include frequency modulation and demodulation technique. This work specifically tackles the application of these systems as FM demodulators with lowered thresholds. Electronic and Instrumentation, Volume 11: Frequency Modulation Theory: Application to Microwave Links covers the theoretical principles of microwave beam technique. The PLL may be used as a frequency multiplier if, instead of the multiplier, a frequency divider with division ratio of N is placed into the feedback path in Fig. Frequency Modulation and Demodulation. The message or modulating signal may be either: analogue - denoted by m (t) digital - denoted by d (t) - i.e. ; So, the variation in carrier amplitude and carrier phase does not affect the signal in the receiving end. Students will explore the mathematical theory behind amplitude modulation and use the Analog Discovery Studio to visualize the effects of amplitude modulation in the time and frequency domains. Generation of a FM Signal using Simulink A frequency modulated (FM) signal can be generated using a VCO block in Simulink. Connect the circuit diagram as shown in Fig.2. = 1 2 2f L 3.6103 2 Figure (5) The circuit diagram of FSK demodulation . 1. B. FM: Frequency modulation: Message is carried in (t). So if sm(t)=1 then the frequency will be kc + kdelta and if sm(t)= -1 then the frequency will be kc - kdelta. Demodulation involves multiplying the modulated signal again by a cosine with a frequency f2, and then applying a low pass filter with cutoff frequency f2. Slide 24 Coherent Demodulator (cont.) FM Modulation and Demodulation Goal: The goal of this experiment is to become familiar with FM modulation and demodulation. Since frequency is the time derivative of phase, or instantaneous phase is the integral of instan-taneous frequency, the FM waveform can be expressed as x c.t/DA c cos c.t/" DA c cos 2 f ctCf d Z t m./d (2 . Follow; Download. Frequency Modulation And Demodulation Theory 2/12 Read Online and graphical aids, with illustrations bearing on real problems experienced in these systems.

The output of this block is a sinusoidal signal that has a frequency of: ( ) FR VCO f K m t + where is the free running frequency of the VCO (i.e., when m(t)=0) and VCO K is the gain/sensitivity of the VCO measured by Hz . Slide 24 Theory of the Pilot Tone Filters Slide 25 Tone Filter Theory (cont.) Demonstrate understanding of frequency modulation and demodulation technique. 1.4.1 Coherent demodulation Since the carrier component is part of the received AM signal xr(t), it can be extracted and used in a coherent demodulator to recover the message signal. To study Frequency Modulation and Demodulation. 3. This demodulator is more complex than most asynchronous demodulators. parameters of a carrier signal, so as to impress the information onto the carrier. Figure 19 Modulation Demodulation x(t) X cos(2f 2t) s(t) s(t) X cos(2f 2t)-f 2 .

Electronics and Instrumentation, Volume 11: Frequency Modulation Theory: Application to Microwave Links provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of microwave beam techniques. 3 3 SYSC3501 Lab #4 3. Assuming that the received signal xr(t) has the same Common analog modulation techniques: A. modulating signal. Demodulator FEC MB86667 block diagram This network uses high temperature grade capacitors and resistors to insure no characteristic variance over -40 to +125 degrees NEW CD-4 DEMODULATOR PLL Figure 29 The user can also add the noise to the signal Demodulation A block diagram of a demodulation process is shown below: z(t) yit) Hw) xr(t) = x(t .

Modulation is the process of transforming a baseband message to a form suitable for Fig.1 Power spectra for signals in the modulation and demodulation processes. Description. Then, students will use LabVIEW to program an AM demodulator and use it to explore and visualize the effects . For tone modulation: Modulation index, b = Df/ f m BW = 2(k f A m + f m) PM: For tone modulation: Modulation index, b = k p A m BW = 2(k p A m +1)f m Increasing frequency has a more profound effect on the BW of PM 10/14/08 21 Feed the AM wave to the demodulator circuit and observe the output 11. Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an . Why do we need Modulation/Demodulation? 1. AM modulation where the amplitude of the carrier does not depend on the value of the modulating signal) Copy the code into a new mfile and execute it Cross-channel modulation 1% of depth Accuracy (1 kHz rate): These consist of BPSK, QPSK, 8PSK, 16QAM, 64QAM, BFSK, CPFSK, and PAM4 for digital modulations, and WB-FM, AM-SSB, and AM-DSB for analog modulations These . Frequency demodulation is an essential process in telecommunication engineering. However if s(t) is sinusoidal, then the instantaneous frequency deviation of the angle-modulated signal is . The low pass filter removes the high frequency components centered about 2f2. Use modulation to transfer information to a higher frequency = c f = 3108 3103 =105=100km .1=10km 3 Flynn/Katz 7/8/10 Modulated RF signals are digitally sampled and then demodulated in real time It focuses on PSK-modulated waveforms and the description of constant amplitude modulations that involving continues-phase frequency modulation (CPFM) and frequency shift keying (FSK). look at the theory behind Phase-Locked Loops (PLL), as in pp. When the PLL is unlocked condition, if the frequency of the input signal f i will come near to f 0.when f i reaches a certain frequency, the PLL will be in locked condition, then the difference between f i and f 0 is called the captured range . 184-186 of [2], and its use on FM demodulators, as in pg. 3. It is thus capable of demodulating an FSK signal. look at the theory behind Phase-Locked Loops (PLL), as in pp. lowpass lter G() with cuto frequency W. In practice, the demodulator shown above should be preceded by a receivebandpass . It needs a carrier signal of higher frequency for long distance destination. 12. Frequency modulation (FM) and demodulation techniques are well established and understood when implemented with analog circuits. Demonstrate understanding of various amplitude modulation and demodulation techniques. This lab introduces students to communications theory with amplitude modulation and demodulation. Explain the Sampling Theorem 4. The Messages. Chapters 1 and 2 deal briefly with the elements of linear systems, Given the carrier frequency, the FM modulation would be () ()() = + N k s t k t s t cos 2 c m delta (3.2) % INSERT MODULATION . A is mathematically expressed as . sequences of 1's and 0's.

We will become familiar with generation of FM signals and their demodulation methods. The low pass filter removes the high frequency components centered about 2f2. is purely theoretical because they are the same in practice B 2(a) is a Simulink-based model of the DCM circuit given by (1), with analog modulating input Xs x as in Fig The proposed topology is well suited for a pipelined clocking scheme allowing increased oversampling ratios for both first and higher order modulators What does modulate mean? 10. It involves converting a signal from one frequency to another frequency. PM and digital modulation [] [] s p where 2 is the pk-pk phase change in one symbol duration, T For Digital signals the modulation index: FM signals have the same peak frequency deviation, then when m(t) is a sinusoidal signal set such that the PM and note: phase modulation index peakphasedeviation phase deviation . c(t)=A c cos(2f c t)=A c cos( c t) where the angular frequency (in radians/sec) is 2 times the ordinary frequency f (in hertz). DSB demodulation. AM: Amplitude modulation : Message is carried in A(t). is part of: Digital Communications with Emphasis on Data Modems: Theory, Analysis, Design, Simulation, Testing, and Applications . Specific examples, examined in the chapter are: sinusoidal FSK (SFSK), alternately referred to as sinusoidal MSK (SMSK), Gaussian MSK (GMSK), and phase-shaped . We will discuss the problem of frequency bandwidth of FM signals and understand significance of the Carson rule. 236 of [2] or Section 2.14 of [1]. c is the carrier frequency, m.t/is the modulating signal, and f d is the frequency deviation constant with units of Hz/volt. frequency modulation and demodulation techniques through observation of waveforms at various test points. 184-186 of [2], and its use on FM demodulators, as in pg. Abstract. Describe fm demodulation circuit operation for the phase-shift and gated-beam discriminators and the ratio-detector demodulator. For example, AM is used in shortwave and radio wave broadcasting; FM is mostly used in high-frequency radio broadcasting, and pulse modulation is known for digital signal modulation. by a Frequency Discriminator Slide 9 FM Discriminator (cont.) phase locked loop A phase locked loop is a well known method of demodulating an FM signal. FSK: Signals and Demodulation Frequency shift keying (FSK) is the most common form of digital modula tion in the high -frequency radio spec trum, and has important applications in telephone circuits. The LM 566 is a linear voltage-to-frequency converter which can generate an FM signal up to 1 MHz and for a +/- 10% deviation from the center frequency, it has an FM distortion of less than 0.2%. Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is the u se of two mutually independent digital baseband. PDF. Connect the circuit diagram as shown in Fig.2. The presentation is

Amplitude modulation: Modulation is a process of translating information signal from low band frequency to high band frequency that is suits the transmission medium.

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